Frequently Asked Questions
What is KIMAX®?
KIMAX® is the trademark identifying all glassware, including tubing and rod, made of KIMAX® borosilicate glasses, produced and sold by Kimble Chase. KIMAX® signifies that the glass is manufactured from 33 expansion, low extractable borosilicate glass conforming to USP Type I and ASTM E438, Type I, Class A requirements.
Is KIMAX® glass the same as PYREX® glass?
Both follow the chemical requirements specified in ASTM E438, Standard Specification for Glasses in Laboratory Apparatus.
What is KIMAX® Glass, 33 expansion borosilicate glass, or KG-33 Glass?
KG-33 glass is now known as 33 expansion borosilicate glass. It is also known by its brand name, KIMAX®, or Boro 3.3. It is manufactured from 33 expansion, low extractable borosilicate glass conforming to USP Type I and ASTM E438, Type I, Class A requirements. This glass also meets the requirements of the most current revisions of the European Pharmacopeia and Japanese Pharmacopeia for Type I or hydrolytic glass. The alkali content is low, and it is made without elements of the calcium magnesium and zinc group of heavy metals. The combined total of arsenic and antimony oxides is less than 0.005%.
What is 51 expansion borosilicate glass or N-51A Glass?
N-51A is now known as 51 expansion borosilicate glass or Boro 5.1. It is manufactured from 51 expansion borosilicate glass conforming to USP Type I and ASTM E438, Type I, Class B requirements. This glass also meets the requirements of the most current revisions of the European Pharmacopeia and Japanese Pharmacopeia for Type I or hydrolytic glass.
N-51A is a KIMAX® Brand borosilicate glass possessing the best all-around chemical durability of available commercial glasses. Due to a comparatively low coefficient of expansion, N-51A also possesses good resistance to heat shock. N-51A meets the requirements for Type 1 Class B glass of ASTM E438.
What is Type I borosilicate glass or KG-35 Glass?
KG-35 is now known as Type I borosilicate glass or CT1F. It has a chemical durability comparable to that of 51 expansion borosilicate glass and is used primarily for small and medium-sized machine blown containers. It meets all requirements for Type 1 Class B glass of ASTM E438, but has a lower softening point.
What are the differences between 33 expansion and and 51 expansion borosilicate glass?/>
33 expansion borosilicate glass has a lower coefficient of expansion than 51 expansion borosilicate glass. 33 expansion borosilicate glass is needed for apparatus that require heavy walls to minimize mechanical breakage when heat is applied. Both 33 expansion and 51 expansion borosilicate glass are highly resistant to chemical attack. Most laboratory glassware is made from 33 expansion borosilicate glass, with the exception of laboratory vials and bottles. Vials and bottles are most often manufactured from 51 expansion borosilicate glass.
What are the differences between RAY-SORB® and Amber Glasses?
KIMAX® Amber 203 glass is amber borosilicate glass developed for light-sensitive pharmaceutical products and has a chemical durability comparable to 51 expansion borosilicate glass.
RAY-SORB® is the trademark identifying red-colored KIMAX® glassware for use when contents must be protected from light of wavelengths below the 500 nm (nanometer) range. Transmission characteristics: 0 percent at 300 nm, 1 percent at 400 nm and 4 percent at 500 nm.
What is the difference between a "partial immersion" and a "total immersion" thermometer?
A partial immersion thermometer is designed with a scale calibrated to indicate the true temperature when the thermometer is immersed to a specified depth. The portion that should be immersed is indicated on the back of each thermometer.
A total immersion thermometer is designed with a scale calibrated to indicate the true temperature when the bulb and the portion of the mercury column, to just below the temperature being read, is exposed to the temperature to be measured.
What are the differences between Class A and Class B glassware?
Volumetric glassware that is permanently marked Class "A" is guaranteed to comply with volumetric tolerances prescribed in ASTM E694 and its latest revisions. It is also supplied with a serialized certificate of precision.
Volumetric glassware that is permanently marked Class "B" has a tolerance that is twice as large as Class "A".
When do I use the blow-out method on pipets?
Only type serological pipets require that the last drops be "blown out" to obtain the total rated capacity. They are calibrated to deliver to the tip and are permanently marked with two bands near the top end or a wide opaque ring near the top end. Volumetric (Transfer) or Measuring (Mohr) pipets are calibrated for after touch-off method.
The proper method of delivery is as follows:
Draw the liquid above the top graduation using bulb or equivalent device.
What is "serialized and certified" glassware?
Glassware characterized as "serialized and certified" is permanently marked with its own serial number and supplied with a Certificate of Graduation Accuracy attesting to its conformance with ASTM Standards.
What is the difference between "To Contain" and "To Deliver"?
All calibrated volumetric glassware requires that the user be informed whether the ware is "To Contain" or "To Deliver" and that it be permanently marked "TC" or "TD." When the graduation line denotes the volume contained in the calibrated vessel, it is marked TC. The ware is marked TD when the graduation line indicates the volume delivered from the vessel. TD calibrated vessels are different from the TC calibrated vessels because of the drainage holdback error. For example, when the amount of water required to wet the inner surface of the vessel in contact with the water is added to the TC volume, the TD vessel then delivers the same volume as the contained volume in a TC vessel. The International Standards Organization designation for "To Contain" is "IN" and the "To Deliver" is "EX."
What causes smoke rings in finished culture tubes?
Smoke rings, sometimes called boron haze, may occur when gases are trapped inside the tube during finishing. Sometimes, the smoky appearance is caused by condensation since borosilicate glass is thermal shocked with water.
How do I separate ground joints that have become frozen?
For glass-to-glass joints, immerse the joints in a glass container of freshly poured carbonated liquid. The liquid will start penetrating between the joints. Let them soak in the solution for about 15 minutes. After removing the joints, rinse with water and then wipe. Slowly heat the two joints by rotating them over a Bunsen burner flame for about 20 seconds. Wear heat resistant gloves to avoid being burned. Make sure that at least 50% of the joints are wet before heating. After removing from the flame, slowly twist the joints apart. If this does not work repeat the procedure. Never force the two joints apart when using this method.
For PTFE-to-glass connections, place the piece of glassware containing the PTFE part (stopcock, stopper, etc.) into an ice bath for about 15-20 minutes. After removing the glassware from the ice bath the PTFE portion should have contracted enough to allow the pieces to be separated.
How do I clean fritted ware?
New fritted filters and fritted ware should be washed by suction with hot hydrochloric acid and then rinsed with water before use. This treatment will remove loose particles of foreign matter such as dust. It is advisable to clean fritted ware as soon as possible after use. Also, many precipitates can be removed from the fritted ware by rinsing from the reverse side with water under pressure not to exceed 15lbs. /sq. in. Drawing water through the reverse side with a vacuum pump is also effective.
Is sodium hydroxide okay to use with burets?
Yes, as long as the buret is cleaned immediately after each use. It is also better to use a PTFE stopcock when working with sodium hydroxide. If the buret is not properly handled when working with certain solutions, you will have leakage problems.
What techniques are recommended for removing air bubbles that are left in the tip of a buret after filling?
Here are two techniques that are often successful:
What is involved in sterile processing by heat?
Sterilization is defined as the destruction or removal (by filtration) of all microorganisms and their spores. Sterilization is usually achieved via heat or radiation.
Sterilization by heat may be achieved by autoclaving, dry heat in hot air ovens, or boiling. Autoclaves can terminally sterilize products that can withstand a temperature of 121ºC for 30 minutes. There are two types of autoclaves: pressure cooker type and gravity displacement models with automatic air and condensate discharge.
Steam sterilization is a process of killing microorganisms through the application of moist heat (saturated steam) under pressure. Heat destroys the cells essential structures, including the cytoplasmic membrane. The rate of at which bacterial cells are destroyed depends on the temperature and time of heat exposure.
What are some of the potential effects of pipet sterilization?
Sterilization by means of irradiation may cause cross-linkage or scission of chemical bonds at the molecular level. The amount of scission or cross linkage is dependent upon chemical composition, morphology, and radiation absorption. These effects may increase or decrease over time. Although the effects of radiation on particular types of material may be predicted, they may also depend upon outside stresses placed in the product during manufacturing or storage after process, which can lead to brownish discoloration of the glass.
Therefore, qualification of materials/products at a dose at or above the maximum dose range followed by product functionality at several time frames through out predicted life span of the product is recommended. The results of this testing should be used to establish the maximum dose for routine processing.
Pipets are sterilized at a 25.0-40.0 kGy range based on an AAMI dose validation study performed by our sterilization vendor. The bioburden test data and the dose calculation from that study determine the dose required.
What is heparinization and why is it used for blood collection tubes?
Heparin, an anticoagulant, is used in blood collection tubes to reduce the risk of a clot forming in blood in a tube after being collected in preparation for performing some kind of blood test.
What are some of the common laboratory uses for blood collection tubes?
Hundreds of blood tests are performed every day in todays modern labs.
In general, there are four main types of blood tests:
Hematology tests examine the blood to identify:
Biochemistry tests measure the amounts of normally occurring chemicals and biochemicals in the blood, both individually and in relation to other chemicals. These measurements are compared to normal ranges for that test and are used to determine whether blood biochemicals are in a proper and healthy balance. Biochemicals and other substances that may be studied include the following:
Not only can biochemical tests precisely measure these substances, but they can also be used to indicate how well some organs and organ systems are functioning. For instance, the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream can help to diagnose or monitor diabetes, and indirectly reflect how much insulin is being produced by the pancreas.
Microbiology tests examine blood for the presence of infectious microscopic organisms such as the following:
Serology tests (tests done on blood serum) can detect the presence of antibodies that are produced by white blood cells to attack microscopic organisms. They are frequently used to detect viral diseases. Most hospital laboratories do not have the equipment or specially trained personnel necessary to isolate the viruses themselves, so serology tests are done instead to identify the infecting organism by studying the antibodies produced against it.
Can Kimble Chase glass products be recycled?
Due to varying recycling capabilities and regulations in regard to the disposal of medical and laboratory glassware, Kimble Chase recommends contacting your local recycling agency or hazardous materials departments for proper disposal instructions concerning used or broken glassware. Borosilicate glass, a specially formulated heat resistant glass used in 33 expansion borosilicate glass and 51 expansion borosilicate glass, is not accepted at many recycling centers due to the differing properties from that of normal household glassware. Kimble Chase does offer products manufactured from soda lime or other recyclable glass. For more information, please contact our technical services department at 1-888-546-2531 or mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org.